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Process for hand-made glass

  • Author:Yvonne
  • Source:Sunny glassware
  • Release on:2016-04-16
Glass production process includes: ingredients, melting, forming, annealing and other processes. Respectively introduced as follows:

1 ingredients, in accordance with the design of a good material square, will be a variety of raw materials weighing in a mixing machine within the mixing. The main raw materials of glass are: quartz sand, feldspar, limestone, soda ash, boric acid etc.

2 melting system, will be equipped with good raw material after high temperature heating, the formation of a uniform bubble free glass. This is a very complicated physical and chemical reaction process. The melting of glass is carried out in the furnace. There are two main types of melting furnace: one is the crucible kiln, the glass material is contained in the crucible. Small crucible kiln only put a crucible, large and can be more than 20 crucible. Crucible kiln is a gap type production, and now only the optical glass and color glass used in the production of crucible kiln. The other is a tank furnace, the glass material in the furnace pool melting, open flame in the upper part of the glass surface heating. The glass melting temperature mostly in the 1300~1600 C Eve joy. Most with flame heating, there are a small amount of current heating, known as electric melting furnace. Now, the pool is continuously produced in the kiln, the small pool kiln can be a few meters, the big can be large to more than 400 meters.

3 forming, is to melt into a good glass liquid into a fixed shape of the solid products. Forming must be carried out in a certain temperature range, which is a cooling process, the glass is first transformed into a plastic state of viscous liquid, and then transformed into a brittle solid. Forming method can be divided into two categories: artificial forming and mechanical forming.

A. artificial forming. And (1) blowing, with a nickel chromium alloy tube, a glass pick in the mold while turning edge blowing. Mainly used for forming glass bubbles, bottles, balls (with the use of eye lens), etc.. (2) drawing. After blow vesicles and other workers stuck on a top tray and two side blow pull is mainly used to manufacture glass tube or rod. (3) to suppress, pick a group of glass, cut with scissors to make it fall into the concave die, and then a convex die. Mainly used for forming cups, plates, etc.. (4) the free forming, pick material with pliers, scissors, tweezers and other tools directly made crafts.
B. mechanical forming. Because of the high strength and high temperature, the condition is poor, so, in addition to free forming, most of them have been replaced by mechanical forming. Mechanical forming in addition to suppress, blown and drawn out, and (1) rolling method, used to produce thick flat glass, Glass Engraver Machine, folder wire glass etc.. (2) casting method, the production of optical glass. (3) centrifugal casting method for the production of large diameter glass tubes, containers and large capacity of the reaction pot. This is the glass melt into the high-speed rotation of the mold, due to centrifugal force so that the glass close to the mold wall, the rotation continues until the glass hardening. (4) sintering process for the production of foam glass. It is in the glass powder adding foaming agent in heating cover of metal mold, glass in the heating process formed a lot of closed bubbles which is a very good insulation, sound insulation materials. In addition, the forming of the flat glass has the vertical lead up method, the leveling method and the float. Float is to let the glass flow floating in the molten metal (TIN) on the surface of the formation of flat glass method, its main advantage is high quality of glass (smooth, smooth), pulling speed, large output.

4 annealing, the glass in the forming process has been subjected to intense temperature changes and shape changes, this change in the glass left a thermal stress. This thermal stress will reduce the strength and thermal stability of the glass products. If the direct cooling, it is likely in the cooling process or after the storage, transport and use of the process of self rupture (commonly known as the cold glass of the glass). In order to eliminate the phenomenon of cold explosion, the glass products must be annealed after forming. Annealing is a period of time to eliminate or reduce the thermal stress in the glass to the allowable value in a certain temperature range for a period of time.

Sunny Glassware  engaged  on glassware in 1992 year with 22 years professional experience, the product range on borosilicate glassglass candle holder, ceramic candle holder, tin candle holder,  stemware glass, glass bottle, glass jar, tableware etc. for more information, welcome visit our website:www.okcandle.com.